Written by dr- zhila abedi asl. Posted in Uncategorised

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also called hyperandrogenic anovulation (HA), or Stein–Leventhal syndrome, is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women. PCOS has a diverse range of causes that are not entirely understood, but there is evidence that it is largely a genetic disease Others[who?] say it is generally a metabolic dysfunction, since it is reversible.[citation needed] Even though considered as a gynecological problem, PCOSconsists of 28 clinical symptoms

Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are the cornerstone of disease pathology, cysts are the 'result' , not the cause of the disease.[citation needed] Symptoms of PCOS will persist even if both ovaries are removed; the disease can appear even if cysts are absent. Since its first description by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, the criteria of diagnosis, symptoms, and causative factors are subject to debate. Gynecologists often see it as a gynecological problem, with the ovaries being the primary organ affected. However, recent insights show a multisystem disorder, with the primary problem lying in hormonal regulation in the hypothalamus, with the involvement of many organs. The name PCOD is used when there is ultrasonographic evidence. The term PCOS is used since there is a wide spectrum of symptoms possible, and cysts in the ovaries are seen only in 15% of people. Treatments like wedge resection or laparoscopic drilling of ovaries are still performed around the world, based on this false 'ovary-focused' belief.[citation needed
However, science is also managing to show that PCOS can also be caused, be related to and / or be exacerbated by impacts during the prenatal period, epigenetic factors, inter-related environmental impacts (especially due to the contamination caused by so-called industrial endocrine disruptors,[7] such as Bisphenol A - BPA - which is very present in plastic products - and certain drugs) and the increasing rates of obesity]
PCOS produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (approximately 12 to 45 years old). It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility and the most frequent endocrine problem in women of reproductive age.[18] Finding that the ovaries appear polycystic on ultrasound is common, but it is not an absolute requirement in all definitions of the disorder
The most common immediate symptoms are anovulation, excess androgenic hormones, and insulin resistance. Anovulation results in irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, and ovulation-related infertility

 Hormone imbalance generally causes acne and hirsutism. Insulin resistance is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol levels.[19] The symptoms and severity of the syndrome vary greatly among those affected


Signs and symptoms 

:Common symptoms of PCOS include the following
 Menstrual disorders: PCOS mostly produces oligomenorrhea (few menstrual periods) or amenorrhea (no menstrual periods), but other types of menstrual disorders may also occur
 (Infertility This generally results directly from chronic anovulation (lack of ovulation 
Further information: Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome
High levels of masculinizing hormones: The most common signs are acne and hirsutism (male pattern of hair growth), but it may produce hypermenorrhea (heavy and prolonged menstrual periods), androgenic alopecia (increase hair thinning or diffuse hair loss), or other symptoms. Approximately three-quarters of people with PCOS (by the diagnostic criteria of NIH/NICHD 1990) have evidence of hyperandrogenemia
 Metabolic syndrome: This appears as a tendency towards central obesity and other symptoms associated with insulin resistance. Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine levels are higher in women with PCOS
Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic background